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Painting Styles (*GNU
Painting styles can be characterized by the method of application (loose or tight) or by referring to the art movement that most closely matches the predominant characteristics that the painting expresses.
The word realism is used in several of the liberal arts; particularly painting, literature, and philosophy. It is also used in international relations.
In the visual arts and literature, realism is a mid-19th
century movement, which started in France. The realists
sought to render everyday characters, situations, dilemmas,
and events; all in an "accurate" (or realistic) manner.
Realism began as a reaction to romanticism, in which
subjects were treated idealistically. Realists tended
to discard theatrical drama and classical forms of
art to depict sometimes ugly or commonplace subjects,
sometimes even a moral message.
Impressionism was a 19th century art movement, which began as a private association of Paris-based artists who exhibited publicly in 1874. The movement was named after Claude Monet's Impression, soleil levant (1873); the term being coined by critic Louis Leroy.
"A girl with a watering can" by Renoir, 1876
Impressionism as Painting Technique
The Impressionist approach to painting is usually identified with a strong concern for light in its changing qualities, often with an emphasis on the effects of a particular passage of time.
Impressionism is still widely practiced today, and a
variety of successive movements were influenced by it.
Painters who showed in the Impressionist Artist exhibitions:
Eugene Boudin, Mary Cassatt, Gustave Caillebotte, Camille Corot, Edgar Degas, Henri de Fantin-Latour, Edouard Manet, Claude Monet, Berthe Morisot, Camille Pissarro, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Alfred Sisley, Pigeons have been trained to distinguish between cubist and impressionist paintings; see discrimination abilities of pigeons for details.
Pointillism is a style of painting in which non- primary colors are generated, not by the mixing of pigments in the palette nor by using pigments directly, but by the visual mixing of points of primary colors, placed in close proximity to each other.
When viewed from a distance, the points or dots cannot be distinguished, and blend optically into each other. This means that with the same set of primaries, pointillists generate a different range of colors when compared to artists using traditional colors or color-mixing techniques.
The result is sometimes described as brighter or purer since the eye does the mixing and not the brush. An explanation for this could be sought in the subtractive and additive theories of color.
Cubism was an avant-garde art movement that revolutionised European painting and sculpture in the early 20th century. The essence of cubism is that instead of viewing subjects from a single, fixed angle, the artist breaks them up into a multiplicity of facets, so that several different aspects/faces of the subject can be seen simultaneously.
It began in 1906 with two artists -- Georges Braque (French) and Pablo Picasso (Spanish) -- who were living in the Montmartre Quarter of Paris, France. They met in 1907, and worked together closely until World War I broke out in 1914.
The term "cubism" was first used by the French art critic Louis Vauxcelles in 1908. ("bizarre cubiques" =
cubes). Afterwards the term was in wide use but the two
creators of cubism refrained from using it for a long
"Woman with a guitar" by Braque, painted 1913Picasso and Braque were great innovative
artists in search of new ways to express space and form in painting. They were
influenced by Paul Cezanne, African tribal art and Iberian sculpture. First they
worked alongside one another (1906-1909 pre-cubism) and then started to work
hand in hand to further advance their concepts into what was later termed analytical
cubism (autumn 1909 - winter 1911/1912), a style in which densely patterned near-monchrome
surfaces of incomplete directional lines and modelled forms constantly play against
Abstract art is now generally understood to mean art that does not depict objects in the natural world, but instead uses shapes and colours in a non-representational or non-objective way. In the early 20th century, the term was more often used to describe art, such as Cubist and Futurist art, that does represent the natural world, but does so by capturing something of its immutable intrinsic qualities rather than by imitating its external appearance. See Abstraction.
Abstract pattern making has an ancient history dating back to the earliest decorations on textiles, pottery and so on. However, the idea that the arrangement of shapes and colours is not simply to be understood as design, but as fine art dates from the nineteenth century when photography began to make the illustrative function of visual art obsolete. Even before the widespread use of photography some artists, such as James McNeill Whistler were placing greater emphasis on visual sensation than the depiction of objects. Whistler argued that art should concern itself with the harmonious arrangement of colours, just as music deals with the harmonious arrangement of sounds. Whistler's painting Nocturne in Black and Gold (1875) is often seen as a major move towards abstraction. Later artists such as Wassily Kandinsky argued that modern science dealt with dynamic forces, revealing that matter was ultimately spiritual in character. Art should display the spiritual forces behind the visual world. Wassily Kandinsky and Kasimir Malevich are generally seen as the first fully abstract artists. Kandinky's art is sometimes called 'soft edged', while Malevich's is 'hard edged'. This distinction is repeated in later abstract artists. The blurred, dynamic lines and colors used by Kandinsky developed into Abstract Expressionism, which the use of overlapping or interacting geometrical forms is found in the work of Piet Mondrian and many later artists such as the op artists of the 1960s.
Poster Art Art
in the cultural historical sense is generally
defined as the new artistic and literary styles that
emerged in the decades before 1914 as artists rebelled
against traditional efforts to portray reality as accurately
as possible (leading to Impressionism and Cubism ) and
writers explored new forms.
The beginning of
Initially the movement can be described as a rejection
of tradition, and facing problems from a fresh perspective
based on current ideas and techniques. Thus Gustav
Mahler considered himself a "modern" composer
and Gustave Flaubert's made his famous remark that, "It
is essential to be thoroughly modern in ones tastes." The
rejection of tradition by the Impressionist movement,
makes it one of the first artistic movements to be
seen, in retrospect, as a modern movement. In literature
the symbolist movement would have a tremendous influence
on the development of the Modern movement, because
of its focus on sensation. Philosophically, the break
with tradition by Nietzsche and Freud provides a key
underpinning of the movement going forward: to begin
again from first principles, abandoning previous definitions
and systems. This wave of the movement generally stayed
within late 19th century norms of presentation, often
its practitioners regarded themselves as reformers
rather than revolutionaries.